Rewrite reference handling to be abstract and accurate

This commit actually does three major changes to the way references
are handled within JGit.  Unfortunately they were easier to do as
a single massive commit than to break them up into smaller units.

Disambiguate symbolic references:
---------------------------------

  Reporting a symbolic reference such as HEAD as though it were
  any other normal reference like refs/heads/master causes subtle
  programming errors.  We have been bitten by this error on several
  occasions, as have some downstream applications written by myself.

  Instead of reporting HEAD as a reference whose name differs from
  its "original name", report it as an actual SymbolicRef object
  that the application can test the type and examine the target of.

  With this change, Ref is now an abstract type with different
  subclasses for the different types.

  In the classical example of "HEAD" being a symbolic reference to
  branch "refs/heads/master", the Repository.getAllRefs() method
  will now return:

      Map<String, Ref> all = repository.getAllRefs();
      SymbolicRef HEAD = (SymbolicRef) all.get("HEAD");
      ObjectIdRef master = (ObjectIdRef) all.get("refs/heads/master");

      assertSame(master,               HEAD.getTarget());
      assertSame(master.getObjectId(), HEAD.getObjectId());

      assertEquals("HEAD",              HEAD.getName());
      assertEquals("refs/heads/master", master.getName());

  A nice side-effect of this change is the storage type of the
  symbolic reference is no longer ambiguous with the storge type
  of the underlying reference it targets.  In the above example,
  if master was only available in the packed-refs file, then the
  following is also true:

      assertSame(Ref.Storage.LOOSE,  HEAD.getStorage());
      assertSame(Ref.Storage.PACKED, master.getStorage());

  (Prior to this change we returned the ambiguous storage of
   LOOSE_PACKED for HEAD, which was confusing since it wasn't
   actually true on disk).

  Another nice side-effect of this change is all intermediate
  symbolic references are preserved, and are therefore visible
  to the application when they walk the target chain.  We can
  now correctly inspect chains of symbolic references.

  As a result of this change the Ref.getOrigName() method has been
  removed from the API.  Applications should identify a symbolic
  reference by testing for isSymbolic() and not by using an arcane
  string comparsion between properties.

Abstract the RefDatabase storage:
---------------------------------

  RefDatabase is now abstract, similar to ObjectDatabase, and a
  new concrete implementation called RefDirectory is used for the
  traditional on-disk storage layout.  In the future we plan to
  support additional implementations, such as a pure in-memory
  RefDatabase for unit testing purposes.

Optimize RefDirectory:
----------------------

  The implementation of the in-memory reference cache, reading, and
  update routines has been completely rewritten.  Much of the code
  was heavily borrowed or cribbed from the prior implementation,
  so copyright notices have been left intact as much as possible.

  The RefDirectory cache no longer confuses symbolic references
  with normal references.  This permits the cache to resolve the
  value of a symbolic reference as late as possible, ensuring it
  is always current, without needing to maintain reverse pointers.

  The cache is now 2 sorted RefLists, rather than 3 HashMaps.
  Using sorted lists allows the implementation to reduce the
  in-memory footprint when storing many refs.  Using specialized
  types for the elements allows the code to avoid additional map
  lookups for auxiliary stat information.

  To improve scan time during getRefs(), the lists are returned via
  a copy-on-write contract.  Most callers of getRefs() do not modify
  the returned collections, so the copy-on-write semantics improves
  access on repositories with a large number of packed references.

  Iterator traversals of the returned Map<String,Ref> are performed
  using a simple merge-join of the two cache lists, ensuring we can
  perform the entire traversal in linear time as a function of the
  number of references: O(PackedRefs + LooseRefs).

  Scans of the loose reference space to update the cache run in
  O(LooseRefs log LooseRefs) time, as the directory contents
  are sorted before being merged against the in-memory cache.
  Since the majority of stable references are kept packed, there
  typically are only a handful of reference names to be sorted,
  so the sorting cost should not be very high.

  Locking is reduced during getRefs() by taking advantage of the
  copy-on-write semantics of the improved cache data structure.
  This permits concurrent readers to pull back references without
  blocking each other.  If there is contention updating the cache
  during a scan, one or more updates are simply skipped and will
  get picked up again in a future scan.

  Writing to the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs during reference delete is
  now fully atomic.  The file is locked, reparsed fresh, and written
  back out if a change is necessary.  This avoids all race conditions
  with concurrent external updates of the packed-refs file.

  The RefLogWriter class has been fully folded into RefDirectory
  and is therefore deleted.  Maintaining the reference's log is
  the responsiblity of the database implementation, and not all
  implementations will use java.io for access.

  Future work still remains to be done to abstract the ReflogReader
  class away from local disk IO.

Change-Id: I26b9287c45a4b2d2be35ba2849daa316f5eec85d
Signed-off-by: Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>
39 files changed