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//
//  ========================================================================
//  Copyright (c) 1995-2013 Mort Bay Consulting Pty. Ltd.
//  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  All rights reserved. This program and the accompanying materials
//  are made available under the terms of the Eclipse Public License v1.0
//  and Apache License v2.0 which accompanies this distribution.
//
//      The Eclipse Public License is available at
//      http://www.eclipse.org/legal/epl-v10.html
//
//      The Apache License v2.0 is available at
//      http://www.opensource.org/licenses/apache2.0.php
//
//  You may elect to redistribute this code under either of these licenses.
//  ========================================================================
//

package org.eclipse.jetty.http;

import static org.eclipse.jetty.util.QuotedStringTokenizer.isQuoted;
import static org.eclipse.jetty.util.QuotedStringTokenizer.quoteOnly;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.nio.ByteBuffer;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Calendar;
import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import java.util.GregorianCalendar;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Locale;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.NoSuchElementException;
import java.util.Set;
import java.util.StringTokenizer;
import java.util.TimeZone;

import org.eclipse.jetty.util.ArrayTernaryTrie;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.BufferUtil;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.DateCache;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.LazyList;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.QuotedStringTokenizer;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.StringMap;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.StringUtil;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.Trie;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.log.Log;
import org.eclipse.jetty.util.log.Logger;


/**
 * HTTP Fields. A collection of HTTP header and or Trailer fields.
 *
 * <p>This class is not synchronised as it is expected that modifications will only be performed by a
 * single thread.
 * 
 * <p>The cookie handling provided by this class is guided by the Servlet specification and RFC6265.
 *
 */
public class HttpFields implements Iterable<HttpField>
{
    private static final Logger LOG = Log.getLogger(HttpFields.class);
    public static final TimeZone __GMT = TimeZone.getTimeZone("GMT");
    public static final DateCache __dateCache = new DateCache("EEE, dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss 'GMT'", Locale.US);

    public static final String __COOKIE_DELIM="\",;\\ \t";
    
    static
    {
        __GMT.setID("GMT");
        __dateCache.setTimeZone(__GMT);
    }
    
    public final static String __separators = ", \t";

    private static final String[] DAYS =
        { "Sat", "Sun", "Mon", "Tue", "Wed", "Thu", "Fri", "Sat"};
    private static final String[] MONTHS =
        { "Jan", "Feb", "Mar", "Apr", "May", "Jun", "Jul", "Aug", "Sep", "Oct", "Nov", "Dec", "Jan"};

    public static class DateGenerator
    {
        private final StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder(32);
        private final GregorianCalendar gc = new GregorianCalendar(__GMT);

        /**
         * Format HTTP date "EEE, dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss 'GMT'"
         */
        public String formatDate(long date)
        {
            buf.setLength(0);
            gc.setTimeInMillis(date);

            int day_of_week = gc.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK);
            int day_of_month = gc.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH);
            int month = gc.get(Calendar.MONTH);
            int year = gc.get(Calendar.YEAR);
            int century = year / 100;
            year = year % 100;

            int hours = gc.get(Calendar.HOUR_OF_DAY);
            int minutes = gc.get(Calendar.MINUTE);
            int seconds = gc.get(Calendar.SECOND);

            buf.append(DAYS[day_of_week]);
            buf.append(',');
            buf.append(' ');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, day_of_month);

            buf.append(' ');
            buf.append(MONTHS[month]);
            buf.append(' ');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, century);
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, year);

            buf.append(' ');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, hours);
            buf.append(':');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, minutes);
            buf.append(':');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, seconds);
            buf.append(" GMT");
            return buf.toString();
        }

        /**
         * Format "EEE, dd-MMM-yy HH:mm:ss 'GMT'" for cookies
         */
        public void formatCookieDate(StringBuilder buf, long date)
        {
            gc.setTimeInMillis(date);

            int day_of_week = gc.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_WEEK);
            int day_of_month = gc.get(Calendar.DAY_OF_MONTH);
            int month = gc.get(Calendar.MONTH);
            int year = gc.get(Calendar.YEAR);
            year = year % 10000;

            int epoch = (int) ((date / 1000) % (60 * 60 * 24));
            int seconds = epoch % 60;
            epoch = epoch / 60;
            int minutes = epoch % 60;
            int hours = epoch / 60;

            buf.append(DAYS[day_of_week]);
            buf.append(',');
            buf.append(' ');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, day_of_month);

            buf.append('-');
            buf.append(MONTHS[month]);
            buf.append('-');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, year/100);
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, year%100);

            buf.append(' ');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, hours);
            buf.append(':');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, minutes);
            buf.append(':');
            StringUtil.append2digits(buf, seconds);
            buf.append(" GMT");
        }
    }

    private static final ThreadLocal<DateGenerator> __dateGenerator =new ThreadLocal<DateGenerator>()
    {
        @Override
        protected DateGenerator initialValue()
        {
            return new DateGenerator();
        }
    };

    /**
     * Format HTTP date "EEE, dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss 'GMT'"
     */
    public static String formatDate(long date)
    {
        return __dateGenerator.get().formatDate(date);
    }

    /**
     * Format "EEE, dd-MMM-yyyy HH:mm:ss 'GMT'" for cookies
     */
    public static void formatCookieDate(StringBuilder buf, long date)
    {
        __dateGenerator.get().formatCookieDate(buf,date);
    }

    /**
     * Format "EEE, dd-MMM-yyyy HH:mm:ss 'GMT'" for cookies
     */
    public static String formatCookieDate(long date)
    {
        StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder(28);
        formatCookieDate(buf, date);
        return buf.toString();
    }

    private final static String __dateReceiveFmt[] =
        {
        "EEE, dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss zzz",
        "EEE, dd-MMM-yy HH:mm:ss",
        "EEE MMM dd HH:mm:ss yyyy",

        "EEE, dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss", "EEE dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss zzz",
        "EEE dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss", "EEE MMM dd yyyy HH:mm:ss zzz", "EEE MMM dd yyyy HH:mm:ss",
        "EEE MMM-dd-yyyy HH:mm:ss zzz", "EEE MMM-dd-yyyy HH:mm:ss", "dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss zzz",
        "dd MMM yyyy HH:mm:ss", "dd-MMM-yy HH:mm:ss zzz", "dd-MMM-yy HH:mm:ss", "MMM dd HH:mm:ss yyyy zzz",
        "MMM dd HH:mm:ss yyyy", "EEE MMM dd HH:mm:ss yyyy zzz",
        "EEE, MMM dd HH:mm:ss yyyy zzz", "EEE, MMM dd HH:mm:ss yyyy", "EEE, dd-MMM-yy HH:mm:ss zzz",
        "EEE dd-MMM-yy HH:mm:ss zzz", "EEE dd-MMM-yy HH:mm:ss",
        };

    private static class DateParser
    {
        final SimpleDateFormat _dateReceive[]= new SimpleDateFormat[__dateReceiveFmt.length];

        long parse(final String dateVal)
        {
            for (int i = 0; i < _dateReceive.length; i++)
            {
                if (_dateReceive[i] == null)
                {
                    _dateReceive[i] = new SimpleDateFormat(__dateReceiveFmt[i], Locale.US);
                    _dateReceive[i].setTimeZone(__GMT);
                }

                try
                {
                    Date date = (Date) _dateReceive[i].parseObject(dateVal);
                    return date.getTime();
                }
                catch (java.lang.Exception e)
                {
                    // LOG.ignore(e);
                }
            }

            if (dateVal.endsWith(" GMT"))
            {
                final String val = dateVal.substring(0, dateVal.length() - 4);

                for (SimpleDateFormat element : _dateReceive)
                {
                    try
                    {
                        Date date = (Date) element.parseObject(val);
                        return date.getTime();
                    }
                    catch (java.lang.Exception e)
                    {
                        // LOG.ignore(e);
                    }
                }
            }
            return -1;
        }
    }

    public static long parseDate(String date)
    {
        return __dateParser.get().parse(date);
    }

    private static final ThreadLocal<DateParser> __dateParser =new ThreadLocal<DateParser>()
    {
        @Override
        protected DateParser initialValue()
        {
            return new DateParser();
        }
    };

    public final static String __01Jan1970=formatDate(0);
    public final static ByteBuffer __01Jan1970_BUFFER=BufferUtil.toBuffer(__01Jan1970);
    public final static String __01Jan1970_COOKIE = formatCookieDate(0).trim();
    private final ArrayList<HttpField> _fields = new ArrayList<>(20);

    /**
     * Constructor.
     */
    public HttpFields()
    {
    }


    /**
     * Get Collection of header names.
     */
    public Collection<String> getFieldNamesCollection()
    {
        final Set<String> list = new HashSet<>(_fields.size());
        for (HttpField f : _fields)
        {
            if (f!=null)
                list.add(f.getName());
        }
        return list;
    }

    /**
     * Get enumeration of header _names. Returns an enumeration of strings representing the header
     * _names for this request.
     */
    public Enumeration<String> getFieldNames()
    {
        return Collections.enumeration(getFieldNamesCollection());
    }

    public int size()
    {
        return _fields.size();
    }

    /**
     * Get a Field by index.
     * @return A Field value or null if the Field value has not been set
     *
     */
    public HttpField getField(int i)
    {
        return _fields.get(i);
    }

    @Override
    public Iterator<HttpField> iterator()
    {
        return _fields.iterator();
    }

    public HttpField getField(HttpHeader header)
    {
        for (int i=0;i<_fields.size();i++)
        {
            HttpField f=_fields.get(i);
            if (f.getHeader()==header)
                return f;
        }
        return null;
    }

    public HttpField getField(String name)
    {
        for (int i=0;i<_fields.size();i++)
        {
            HttpField f=_fields.get(i);
            if (f.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(name))
                return f;
        }
        return null;
    }

    public boolean contains(HttpHeader header, String value)
    {
        for (int i=0;i<_fields.size();i++)
        {
            HttpField f=_fields.get(i);
            if (f.getHeader()==header && f.contains(value))
                return true;
        }
        return false;
    }
    
    public boolean contains(String name, String value)
    {
        for (int i=0;i<_fields.size();i++)
        {
            HttpField f=_fields.get(i);
            if (f.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(name) && f.contains(value))
                return true;
        }
        return false;
    }
    
    public boolean containsKey(String name)
    {
        for (int i=0;i<_fields.size();i++)
        {
            HttpField f=_fields.get(i);
            if (f.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(name))
                return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    public String getStringField(HttpHeader header)
    {
        return getStringField(header.asString());
    }

    public String get(HttpHeader header)
    {
        return getStringField(header.asString());
    }

    public String get(String header)
    {
        return getStringField(header);
    }

    /**
     * @return the value of a field, or null if not found. For multiple fields of the same name,
     *         only the first is returned.
     * @param name the case-insensitive field name
     */
    public String getStringField(String name)
    {
        HttpField field = getField(name);
        return field==null?null:field.getValue();
    }


    /**
     * Get multi headers
     *
     * @return Enumeration of the values, or null if no such header.
     * @param name the case-insensitive field name
     */
    public Collection<String> getValuesCollection(String name)
    {
        final List<String> list = new ArrayList<>();
        for (HttpField f : _fields)
            if (f.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(name))
                list.add(f.getValue());
        return list;
    }

    /**
     * Get multi headers
     *
     * @return Enumeration of the values
     * @param name the case-insensitive field name
     */
    public Enumeration<String> getValues(final String name)
    {
        for (int i=0;i<_fields.size();i++)
        {
            final HttpField f = _fields.get(i);
            
            if (f.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(name))
            {
                final int first=i;
                return new Enumeration<String>()
                {
                    HttpField field=f;
                    int i = first+1;

                    @Override
                    public boolean hasMoreElements()
                    {
                        if (field==null)
                        {
                            while (i<_fields.size()) 
                            {
                                field=_fields.get(i++);
                                if (field.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(name))
                                    return true;
                            }
                            field=null;
                            return false;
                        }
                        return true;
                    }

                    @Override
                    public String nextElement() throws NoSuchElementException
                    {
                        if (hasMoreElements())
                        {
                            String value=field.getValue();
                            field=null;
                            return value;
                        }
                        throw new NoSuchElementException();
                    }

                };
            }
        }

        List<String> empty=Collections.emptyList();
        return Collections.enumeration(empty);

    }

    /**
     * Get multi field values with separator. The multiple values can be represented as separate
     * headers of the same name, or by a single header using the separator(s), or a combination of
     * both. Separators may be quoted.
     *
     * @param name the case-insensitive field name
     * @param separators String of separators.
     * @return Enumeration of the values, or null if no such header.
     */
    public Enumeration<String> getValues(String name, final String separators)
    {
        final Enumeration<String> e = getValues(name);
        if (e == null)
            return null;
        return new Enumeration<String>()
        {
            QuotedStringTokenizer tok = null;

            @Override
            public boolean hasMoreElements()
            {
                if (tok != null && tok.hasMoreElements()) return true;
                while (e.hasMoreElements())
                {
                    String value = e.nextElement();
                    if (value!=null)
                    {
                        tok = new QuotedStringTokenizer(value, separators, false, false);
                        if (tok.hasMoreElements()) return true;
                    }
                }
                tok = null;
                return false;
            }

            @Override
            public String nextElement() throws NoSuchElementException
            {
                if (!hasMoreElements()) throw new NoSuchElementException();
                String next = (String) tok.nextElement();
                if (next != null) next = next.trim();
                return next;
            }
        };
    }

    public void put(HttpField field)
    {
        boolean put=false;
        for (int i=_fields.size();i-->0;)
        {
            HttpField f=_fields.get(i);
            if (f.isSame(field))
            {
                if (put)
                    _fields.remove(i);
                else
                {
                    _fields.set(i,field);
                    put=true;
                }
            }
        }
        if (!put)
            _fields.add(field);
    }
    
    /**
     * Set a field.
     *
     * @param name the name of the field
     * @param value the value of the field. If null the field is cleared.
     */
    public void put(String name, String value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            remove(name);
        else
            put(new HttpField(name, value));
    }

    public void put(HttpHeader header, HttpHeaderValue value)
    {
        put(header,value.toString());
    }

    /**
     * Set a field.
     *
     * @param header the header name of the field
     * @param value the value of the field. If null the field is cleared.
     */
    public void put(HttpHeader header, String value)
    {
        if (value == null)
            remove(header);
        else
            put(new HttpField(header, value));
    }

    /**
     * Set a field.
     *
     * @param name the name of the field
     * @param list the List value of the field. If null the field is cleared.
     */
    public void put(String name, List<String> list)
    {
        remove(name);
        for (String v : list)
            if (v!=null)
                add(name,v);
    }

    /**
     * Add to or set a field. If the field is allowed to have multiple values, add will add multiple
     * headers of the same name.
     *
     * @param name the name of the field
     * @param value the value of the field.
     * @exception IllegalArgumentException If the name is a single valued field and already has a
     *                value.
     */
    public void add(String name, String value) throws IllegalArgumentException
    {
        if (value == null)
            return;

        HttpField field = new HttpField(name, value);
        _fields.add(field);
    }

    public void add(HttpHeader header, HttpHeaderValue value) throws IllegalArgumentException
    {
        add(header,value.toString());
    }

    /**
     * Add to or set a field. If the field is allowed to have multiple values, add will add multiple
     * headers of the same name.
     *
     * @param header the header
     * @param value the value of the field.
     * @exception IllegalArgumentException 
     */
    public void add(HttpHeader header, String value) throws IllegalArgumentException
    {
        if (value == null) throw new IllegalArgumentException("null value");

        HttpField field = new HttpField(header, value);
        _fields.add(field);
    }

    /**
     * Remove a field.
     *
     * @param name the field to remove
     */
    public void remove(HttpHeader name)
    {
        for (int i=_fields.size();i-->0;)
        {
            HttpField f=_fields.get(i);
            if (f.getHeader()==name)
                _fields.remove(i);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Remove a field.
     *
     * @param name the field to remove
     */
    public void remove(String name)
    {
        for (int i=_fields.size();i-->0;)
        {
            HttpField f=_fields.get(i);
            if (f.getName().equalsIgnoreCase(name))
                _fields.remove(i);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Get a header as an long value. Returns the value of an integer field or -1 if not found. The
     * case of the field name is ignored.
     *
     * @param name the case-insensitive field name
     * @exception NumberFormatException If bad long found
     */
    public long getLongField(String name) throws NumberFormatException
    {
        HttpField field = getField(name);
        return field==null?-1L:field.getLongValue();
    }

    /**
     * Get a header as a date value. Returns the value of a date field, or -1 if not found. The case
     * of the field name is ignored.
     *
     * @param name the case-insensitive field name
     */
    public long getDateField(String name)
    {
        HttpField field = getField(name);
        if (field == null)
            return -1;

        String val = valueParameters(field.getValue(), null);
        if (val == null)
            return -1;

        final long date = __dateParser.get().parse(val);
        if (date==-1)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Cannot convert date: " + val);
        return date;
    }


    /**
     * Sets the value of an long field.
     *
     * @param name the field name
     * @param value the field long value
     */
    public void putLongField(HttpHeader name, long value)
    {
        String v = Long.toString(value);
        put(name, v);
    }

    /**
     * Sets the value of an long field.
     *
     * @param name the field name
     * @param value the field long value
     */
    public void putLongField(String name, long value)
    {
        String v = Long.toString(value);
        put(name, v);
    }


    /**
     * Sets the value of a date field.
     *
     * @param name the field name
     * @param date the field date value
     */
    public void putDateField(HttpHeader name, long date)
    {
        String d=formatDate(date);
        put(name, d);
    }

    /**
     * Sets the value of a date field.
     *
     * @param name the field name
     * @param date the field date value
     */
    public void putDateField(String name, long date)
    {
        String d=formatDate(date);
        put(name, d);
    }

    /**
     * Sets the value of a date field.
     *
     * @param name the field name
     * @param date the field date value
     */
    public void addDateField(String name, long date)
    {
        String d=formatDate(date);
        add(name,d);
    }

    /**
     * Format a set cookie value
     *
     * @param cookie The cookie.
     */
    public void addSetCookie(HttpCookie cookie)
    {
        addSetCookie(
                cookie.getName(),
                cookie.getValue(),
                cookie.getDomain(),
                cookie.getPath(),
                cookie.getMaxAge(),
                cookie.getComment(),
                cookie.isSecure(),
                cookie.isHttpOnly(),
                cookie.getVersion());
    }

    /**
     * Format a set cookie value
     *
     * @param name the name
     * @param value the value
     * @param domain the domain
     * @param path the path
     * @param maxAge the maximum age
     * @param comment the comment (only present on versions > 0)
     * @param isSecure true if secure cookie
     * @param isHttpOnly true if for http only
     * @param version version of cookie logic to use (0 == default behavior)
     */
    public void addSetCookie(
            final String name,
            final String value,
            final String domain,
            final String path,
            final long maxAge,
            final String comment,
            final boolean isSecure,
            final boolean isHttpOnly,
            int version)
    {
        // Check arguments
        if (name == null || name.length() == 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Bad cookie name");

        // Format value and params
        StringBuilder buf = new StringBuilder(128);
        
        // Name is checked for legality by servlet spec, but can also be passed directly so check again for quoting
        boolean quote_name=isQuoteNeededForCookie(name);
        quoteOnlyOrAppend(buf,name,quote_name);
        
        buf.append('=');
        
        // Remember name= part to look for other matching set-cookie
        String name_equals=buf.toString();

        // Append the value
        boolean quote_value=isQuoteNeededForCookie(value);
        quoteOnlyOrAppend(buf,value,quote_value);

        // Look for domain and path fields and check if they need to be quoted
        boolean has_domain = domain!=null && domain.length()>0;
        boolean quote_domain = has_domain && isQuoteNeededForCookie(domain);
        boolean has_path = path!=null && path.length()>0;
        boolean quote_path = has_path && isQuoteNeededForCookie(path);
        
        // Upgrade the version if we have a comment or we need to quote value/path/domain or if they were already quoted
        if (version==0 && ( comment!=null || quote_name || quote_value || quote_domain || quote_path || isQuoted(name) || isQuoted(value) || isQuoted(path) || isQuoted(domain)))
            version=1;

        // Append version
        if (version==1)
            buf.append (";Version=1");
        else if (version>1)
            buf.append (";Version=").append(version);
        
        // Append path
        if (has_path)
        {
            buf.append(";Path=");
            quoteOnlyOrAppend(buf,path,quote_path);
        }
        
        // Append domain
        if (has_domain)
        {
            buf.append(";Domain=");
            quoteOnlyOrAppend(buf,domain,quote_domain);
        }

        // Handle max-age and/or expires
        if (maxAge >= 0)
        {
            // Always use expires
            // This is required as some browser (M$ this means you!) don't handle max-age even with v1 cookies
            buf.append(";Expires=");
            if (maxAge == 0)
                buf.append(__01Jan1970_COOKIE);
            else
                formatCookieDate(buf, System.currentTimeMillis() + 1000L * maxAge);
            
            // for v1 cookies, also send max-age
            if (version>=1)
            {
                buf.append(";Max-Age=");
                buf.append(maxAge);
            }
        }

        // add the other fields
        if (isSecure)
            buf.append(";Secure");
        if (isHttpOnly)
            buf.append(";HttpOnly");
        if (comment != null)
        {
            buf.append(";Comment=");
            quoteOnlyOrAppend(buf,comment,isQuoteNeededForCookie(comment));
        }

        // remove any existing set-cookie fields of same name
        Iterator<HttpField> i=_fields.iterator();
        while (i.hasNext())
        {
            HttpField field=i.next();
            if (field.getHeader()==HttpHeader.SET_COOKIE)
            {
                String val = field.getValue();
                if (val!=null && val.startsWith(name_equals))
                {
                    //existing cookie has same name, does it also match domain and path?
                    if (((!has_domain && !val.contains("Domain")) || (has_domain && val.contains(domain))) &&
                        ((!has_path && !val.contains("Path")) || (has_path && val.contains(path))))
                    {
                        i.remove();
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        
        // add the set cookie
        add(HttpHeader.SET_COOKIE.toString(), buf.toString());

        // Expire responses with set-cookie headers so they do not get cached.
        put(HttpHeader.EXPIRES.toString(), __01Jan1970);
    }

    public void putTo(ByteBuffer bufferInFillMode) 
    {
        for (HttpField field : _fields)
        {
            if (field != null)
                field.putTo(bufferInFillMode);
        }
        BufferUtil.putCRLF(bufferInFillMode);
    }

    @Override
    public String
    toString()
    {
        try
        {
            StringBuilder buffer = new StringBuilder();
            for (HttpField field : _fields)
            {
                if (field != null)
                {
                    String tmp = field.getName();
                    if (tmp != null) buffer.append(tmp);
                    buffer.append(": ");
                    tmp = field.getValue();
                    if (tmp != null) buffer.append(tmp);
                    buffer.append("\r\n");
                }
            }
            buffer.append("\r\n");
            return buffer.toString();
        }
        catch (Exception e)
        {
            LOG.warn(e);
            return e.toString();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Clear the header.
     */
    public void clear()
    {
        _fields.clear();
    }

    public void add(HttpField field)
    {
        _fields.add(field);
    }

    
    
    /**
     * Add fields from another HttpFields instance. Single valued fields are replaced, while all
     * others are added.
     *
     * @param fields the fields to add
     */
    public void add(HttpFields fields)
    {
        if (fields == null) return;

        Enumeration<String> e = fields.getFieldNames();
        while (e.hasMoreElements())
        {
            String name = e.nextElement();
            Enumeration<String> values = fields.getValues(name);
            while (values.hasMoreElements())
                add(name, values.nextElement());
        }
    }

    /**
     * Get field value parameters. Some field values can have parameters. This method separates the
     * value from the parameters and optionally populates a map with the parameters. For example:
     *
     * <PRE>
     *
     * FieldName : Value ; param1=val1 ; param2=val2
     *
     * </PRE>
     *
     * @param value The Field value, possibly with parameteres.
     * @param parameters A map to populate with the parameters, or null
     * @return The value.
     */
    public static String valueParameters(String value, Map<String,String> parameters)
    {
        if (value == null) return null;

        int i = value.indexOf(';');
        if (i < 0) return value;
        if (parameters == null) return value.substring(0, i).trim();

        StringTokenizer tok1 = new QuotedStringTokenizer(value.substring(i), ";", false, true);
        while (tok1.hasMoreTokens())
        {
            String token = tok1.nextToken();
            StringTokenizer tok2 = new QuotedStringTokenizer(token, "= ");
            if (tok2.hasMoreTokens())
            {
                String paramName = tok2.nextToken();
                String paramVal = null;
                if (tok2.hasMoreTokens()) paramVal = tok2.nextToken();
                parameters.put(paramName, paramVal);
            }
        }

        return value.substring(0, i).trim();
    }

    private static final Float __one = new Float("1.0");
    private static final Float __zero = new Float("0.0");
    private static final Trie<Float> __qualities = new ArrayTernaryTrie<>();
    static
    {
        __qualities.put("*", __one);
        __qualities.put("1.0", __one);
        __qualities.put("1", __one);
        __qualities.put("0.9", new Float("0.9"));
        __qualities.put("0.8", new Float("0.8"));
        __qualities.put("0.7", new Float("0.7"));
        __qualities.put("0.66", new Float("0.66"));
        __qualities.put("0.6", new Float("0.6"));
        __qualities.put("0.5", new Float("0.5"));
        __qualities.put("0.4", new Float("0.4"));
        __qualities.put("0.33", new Float("0.33"));
        __qualities.put("0.3", new Float("0.3"));
        __qualities.put("0.2", new Float("0.2"));
        __qualities.put("0.1", new Float("0.1"));
        __qualities.put("0", __zero);
        __qualities.put("0.0", __zero);
    }

    public static Float getQuality(String value)
    {
        if (value == null) return __zero;

        int qe = value.indexOf(";");
        if (qe++ < 0 || qe == value.length()) return __one;

        if (value.charAt(qe++) == 'q')
        {
            qe++;
            Float q = __qualities.get(value, qe, value.length() - qe);
            if (q != null)
                return q;
        }

        Map<String,String> params = new HashMap<>(4);
        valueParameters(value, params);
        String qs = params.get("q");
        if (qs==null)
            qs="*";
        Float q = __qualities.get(qs);
        if (q == null)
        {
            try
            {
                q = new Float(qs);
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                q = __one;
            }
        }
        return q;
    }

    /**
     * List values in quality order.
     *
     * @param e Enumeration of values with quality parameters
     * @return values in quality order.
     */
    public static List<String> qualityList(Enumeration<String> e)
    {
        if (e == null || !e.hasMoreElements())
            return Collections.emptyList();

        Object list = null;
        Object qual = null;

        // Assume list will be well ordered and just add nonzero
        while (e.hasMoreElements())
        {
            String v = e.nextElement();
            Float q = getQuality(v);

            if (q >= 0.001)
            {
                list = LazyList.add(list, v);
                qual = LazyList.add(qual, q);
            }
        }

        List<String> vl = LazyList.getList(list, false);
        if (vl.size() < 2) 
            return vl;

        List<Float> ql = LazyList.getList(qual, false);

        // sort list with swaps
        Float last = __zero;
        for (int i = vl.size(); i-- > 0;)
        {
            Float q = ql.get(i);
            if (last.compareTo(q) > 0)
            {
                String tmp = vl.get(i);
                vl.set(i, vl.get(i + 1));
                vl.set(i + 1, tmp);
                ql.set(i, ql.get(i + 1));
                ql.set(i + 1, q);
                last = __zero;
                i = vl.size();
                continue;
            }
            last = q;
        }
        ql.clear();
        return vl;
    }



    /* ------------------------------------------------------------ */
    /** Does a cookie value need to be quoted?
     * @param s value string
     * @return true if quoted;
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException If there a control characters in the string
     */
    public static boolean isQuoteNeededForCookie(String s)
    {
        if (s==null || s.length()==0)
            return true;
        
        if (QuotedStringTokenizer.isQuoted(s))
            return false;

        for (int i=0;i<s.length();i++)
        {
            char c = s.charAt(i);
            if (__COOKIE_DELIM.indexOf(c)>=0)
                return true;
            
            if (c<0x20 || c>=0x7f)
                throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal character in cookie value");
        }

        return false;
    }
    
    
    private static void quoteOnlyOrAppend(StringBuilder buf, String s, boolean quote)
    {
        if (quote)
            QuotedStringTokenizer.quoteOnly(buf,s);
        else
            buf.append(s);
    }
}